• Specific learning disabilities are endogenous in nature and are characterized by neurologically based deficits in cognitive processes.
• These deficits are specific; that is, they impact particular cognitive processes that interfere with the acquisition of academic skills.
• Specific learning disabilities are heterogeneous—there are various types of learning disabilities, and there is no single defining academic or cognitive deficit or characteristic common to all types of specific learning disabilities.
• Specific learning disabilities may coexist with other disabling conditions (e.g., sensory deficits, language impairment, behavior problems), but are not primarily due to these conditions.
• Of children identified as having specific learning disabilities, the great majority (over 80%) have a disability in the area of reading.
ADHD, or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, is a behavioral condition that makes focusing on everyday requests and routines challenging. People with ADHD typically have trouble getting organized, staying focused, making realistic plans and thinking before acting. They may be fidgety, noisy and unable to adapt to changing situations. Children with ADHD can be defiant, socially inept or aggressive. Families considering treatment options should consult a qualified mental health professional for a complete review of their child's behavioral issues and a treatment plan.
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by feelings of tension, worried thoughts and physical changes like increased blood pressure. People with anxiety disorders usually have recurring intrusive thoughts or concerns. They may avoid certain situations out of worry. They may also have physical symptoms such as sweating, trembling, dizziness or a rapid heartbeat.
Some people describe executive function as “the CEO of the brain.” That’s because these skills allow us to set goals, plan and get things done. When kids struggle with executive skills, it impacts them in school and in everyday life. Executive functioning issues are weaknesses in a set of important mental skills that are key to learning. Kids with executive functioning issues often struggle with working memory, flexible thinking and self-control.
Autism Spectrum Disorders
Autism is not a single disorder, but a spectrum of closely related disorders with a shared core of symptoms. Every individual on the autism spectrum has problems to some degree with social interaction, empathy, communication, and flexible behavior. But the level of disability and the combination of symptoms varies tremendously from person to person. In fact, two kids with the same diagnosis may look very different when it comes to their behaviors and abilities.